European History CSS Paper I 2011





Note: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II. All questions carry EQUAL Marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at One Place instead of at different places.
(iv) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page /Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.

Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet.

(i) The Industrial Revolution was:
a. A broad political movement that swept away the old regime in France.
b. A social revolution that destabilized the Eastern European states.
c. An economic transformation of the agricultural sector in the United Kingdom.
d. A socio-economic process that gradually created technology and capital intensive system of production.
e. None of these.

(ii) The categorization of Left, Center and Right, emerged from which major political change.
a. The French Revolution of 1789
b. The Reform Act of 1832
c. The Revolution of 1848
d. The Unification of Germany
e. None of these

(iii) The French Monarch, Louis XVI, failed to mobilize the army and crush the rebellion because:
a. He got conflicting advice from his financial managers and was worried about the economic impact of a crackdown.
b. He wanted a political solution to the conflict.
c. He was a pious Catholic who did not want to shed the blood of his co-religionists.
d. He was indecisive and doubted the reliability of the army.
e. None of these.

(iv) The Congress System that emerged from the Vienna settlement was:
a. An early exercise in global government.
b. A diplomatic exercise designed to maintain the domestic and territorial and stability of the Habsburg dynastic state
c. A failed attempt to entangle France in the affairs of the Continent.
d. A successful attempt to prevent the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire.
e. None of these.

(v) The British gradually adopted a policy of splendid isolation after the Napoleonic Wars because:
a. Their government was under intense domestic pressure to abandon overseas adventurism after nearly 25 years of military conflict.
b. They were facing acute religious and sectarian difficulties.
c. They did not feel threatened by domestic instability.
d. They felt they had been deceived by the Austrians.
e. None of these

(vi) The Metternich System was:
a. A reactionary system designed to halt communism.
b. A reactionary system designed to suppress the Catholic Church.
c. A reactionary system designed to save the Hohenzollern dynasty.
d. A reactionary system designed to prevent the spread of anti-monarchical thought.
e. None of these.

(vii) The greatest milestone in the constitution development of Britain was:
a. The industrial revolution of 1825
b. The suppression of the Indian rebels in 1857-8.
c. The Reform Act of 1834.
d. The Reform Act of 1836.
e. None of these

(viii) Otto von Bismarck was ably assisted by::
a. Roon & Moltke
b. Schulenber & Roon
c. Fredrick & Moltke
d. Wilhelm & Roon
e. None of these

(ix) Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi were:
a. Italian leaders who wanted a Constitutional Monarchy in Italy.
b. Italian Nationalists who wanted to oust the Austrains.
c. Italian revolutionaries who wanted to crush the Catholic Church.
d. Italian romantics who wanted to establish a Communist Republic.
e. None of these.

(x) Napoleon I is known as a great reformer primarily because of:
a. The Code Nationale.
b. The Concordat.
c. The Code Penal.
d. The Education Reforms.
e. None of these.

(xi) In Europe, the unification of Germany is regarded as more important than the unification of Italy because:
a. Germany was culturally a more important country.
b. Germany’s unification altered the balance of power in Europe.
c. Germany’s leaders were far more competent.
d. Germany had already industrialized before unification while Italy was still backward.
e. None of these.

(xii) The Communist Manifesto is:
a. Responsible for the French Revolution and inspired the Jacobins.
b. An articulation of the Marxist philosophy of history.
c. An excellent example of the Romantic Movement in European thought.
d. An unimportant pamphlet that was easily suppressed and soon forgotten.
e. None of these.

(xiii) The three major European Imperial powers of the 1800s were:
a. France, Russia, and England.
b. Germany, Russia and England.
c. France, England and the Netherlands.
d. England, France, and Germany.
e. None of these.

(xiv) A stable balance of power is achieved when:
a. Maximum offensive power is equal to maximum defensive power.
b. Minimum offensive power is equal to minimum defensive power.
c. Maximum offensive power is less than minimum defensive power.
d. Minimum offensive power is less than minimum defensive power.
e. None of these.

(xv) Bismark’s policy post 1871 was:
a. Isolate Russia, ally with Austria, reconcile with France, challenge England.
b. Isolate France, ally with Austria, befriend Russia, keep England neutral.
c. Aggressive expansion overseas.
d. Spread nationalism in Europe to other oppressed nationalities.
e. None of these.

(xvi) Napoleon III was:
a. The son of Napoleon II.
b. The grandson of Napoleon I.
c. The cousin of Napoleon II.
d. The younger brother of Napoleon I.
e. None of these.

(xvii) The term “Entente Cordiale” means:
a. A friendly understanding.
b. A military alliance.
c. A defense pact.
d. A comprehensive Treaty of Friendship.
e. None of these.

(xviii) Pan-Slavism is:
a. The notion that all Russians should live under one state.
b. The idea that all Slavic Peoples are essentially one national community.
c. A version of Greek Orthodox Christianity popular in Serbia.
d. An exclusive anti-Austrian ideology.
e. None of these.

(xix) Zollverein and Weltpolitik are:
a. German political institutions.
b. German policy initiatives.
c. German imperial concepts.
d. Examples of German ambitiousness.
e. None of these.

(xx) On the eve of the First World War the leaderships of all the major powers believed that:
a. The war was inevitable and was going to be a long and bloody affair.
b. They would be quickly and completely victorious over their enemies.
c. The war was a terrible mistake and totally unnecessary.
d. They were under a legal obligation to go to war even if it did not suit their national interests.
e. None of these.

Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART – II.

Q.2. Why did Britain experience an economic revolution without seriously political upheaval in the 1800s?

Q.3. Do you think the French revolution was inevitable? Defend your opinion.

Q.4. What were the roles of the major European powers in Eastern Question?
Did any one of them have an effective answer to the Eastern Question? Discuss.

Q.5. How did the rise of nationalism in Europe threaten the Russian and Austrian empires? Discuss.

Q.6. How did the socio-economic transformation of Europe post-1815 contribute to expansionism abroad? Are there any broader lesions to be learnt from the phenomenon of European imperialism?

Q.7. Define progress. Do you think that the nineteenth century was an age of progress? Defend your opinion with reference to the history of the period.

Q.8. Compare the foreign policy of Bismark from 1871 and 1890 to the foreign policy of the Kaiser between 1890 and 1914. Critically evaluate the similarities and differences.