Total Marks – 100
(a) Natural Resources (Land, Water, Biological, Environmental, Solar and Energy) as bases for agricultural production. Agriculture as integrated system of components like Crops, Livestock, Fisheries, Forestry, Range Management, Socio-Economics etc. Role of research and newer technologies in current and future agriculture in Pakistan.
(b) Elements of climate and their relationship with crop growth, Factors of soil, Soil formation and development of Soil profile, Soil texture and structure and their management, Soil fertility and fertilizer requirement of various soils and crops, Role of organic matter in soil, Water requirement of crops and water use efficiency, Cropping pattern and crop relations, Systems and types of farming; Nature, formation and reclamation of salt affected and water-logged soil, Soil erosion and conservation
(c) Physiology of growth and development, growth curves, growth regions, RGR, NAR and LAR in relation to biomass production, Seed growth and assimilate partitioning, Harvest Index, Photo-periodic and thermo periodic responses of crop plants, photo-respiration, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle, factors affecting biological N-fixation
(d) The modern concept of genetics, gene and gene function, application of genetics for the improvement of crops
(e) Modern concept of Horticulture industry, Plant propagation, Major management and breeding problems in fruits and vegetables
(f) Pests and diseases in agricultural crops, Principles and methods of pest and disease control, Pesticides – their application and action. Modern concept and principles of insect pest management
(g) Role of agriculture in the national economy. Agriculture mechanization. Land tenure and Land reforms. Population problems of rural Pakistan. Major issues in agriculture and agricultural development in Pakistan.