Philosophy CSS Paper I 2003




NOTE: Attempt any five questions including Question No. 8 which is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.

  1. Logic deals with arguments and inferences. Discuss

  2. What is syllogism? Explain rules of valid syllogism.

  3. How are ambiguity and emotive use of language impediments in clear thinking? Discuss.

  4. What is a fallacy? Briefly explain various logical fallacies.

  5. What is the value of use of symbols in logic? Explain.

  6. What is the name of scientific theory? Discuss in detail the scientific method.

  7. Briefly examine Muslim’s contribution in logic with special reference to Abn Tamiya.


  1. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions.

(1) Which of the following two arguments characterize deductive reasoning?
(a) If all the premises are true, conclusion must be true.
(b) If all the premises are true, the conclusion is only probably true.

(2) Is the conclusion of the following arguments true or false?
(a) All diamonds are hard? (true)
(b) Some diamonds are gems? (true)
(c) All gems are hard? (true/false)

(3) Write down a conditional (hypothetical) statement, identifying clearly which of the parts is called the antecedent and which the consequence.

(4) What the following forms of arguments signify? Either I plead guilty or I plead not guilty, if I plead guilty them, I must pay a fine 100 rupees for an offence I did not commit. If I plead not guilty, then, I must spend the whole day in court.
(a) Reduction ad absurdum (b) The Dilemma (c) Categorical syllogism (d) None of these

(5) An argument based upon a comparison between objects of two different types is called:
(a) Induction by simple enumeration (b) Analogy (c) Casual argument (d) Colligation of facts (e) None of these

(6) What type of definition is this?
“A politician is one who takes interest in politics.”
(a) Wide (b) Circular (c) Narrow (d) Metaphorical (e) None of these

(7) If two statements are related, in such a way that if one of them is true, the other must be false and vice verse, what type of relation holds between the two?
(a) Contradiction (b) Contrariness (c) Implication (d) None of these

(8) When a hypothesis explains an event with reference to its cause, it is called:
(a) Working Hypothesis (b) Descriptive Hypothesis (c) Explanatory Hypothesis (d) Legitimate Hypothesis (e) None of these

(9) Name any two Muslim Logicians, who, it is claimed, have refuted Greek logic.

(10) Name any two modern Logicians.


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