Anthropology (100 Marks)
Definition of anthropology, its historical development and recent trends
II. Social Anthropology
- Definition of culture, its characteristics and functions
- Relationship of anthropology with other social sciences
- Subfields of anthropology that is Biological, archeological, linguistics
- Institution of Family and Marriage (Definition, types, structure, functions, family organization)
- Kinship and Social Organization (Definition, types, functions, kinship terminology etc.)
- Economic Organization: (Definition, evolution, substantivism versus formalism, reciprocity, production, consumption, redistribution, barter and primitive economic systems)
- Political organization: (Definition, evolution of political system, characteristics of Band societies, tribal societies, Chiefdom, and State societies. Internal conflict theories, external conflict theories, origin of civilization, the politic of identity, ethnicity, nationalism modernism, postmodernism etc
- Religion: (Definition, evolution of primitive religions, functions of religion, comparison of divine religions and other world religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism etc.
- Contemporary human problems; such as poverty, social inequality, political instability, population problems and ethnic violence and terrorism etc.
III. Urban Anthropology
Rural-urban migration, expansion of cities, major environmental issues, and sanitation problems. Urbanization and development, establishment of slums and squatter settlements, refugees, Yankees, betties, gypsies, wars and conflict. Conversion of power from feudal to industrialists, institutionalization, education system, and change in the mode of production: agriculture to Capitalists’ poverty: theories and remedies, psychological, cultural, economical, political, religious, physical, environmental, ecological, demographical, lingual, and city management. Conflict theory: Carl Marx, problems created by the mechanization and automation.
IV. Socio-Cultural Changes
Definitions of socio-cultural Changes, various Dimensions of Social Change, barriers in socio-cultural and psychological change. Motivational factors for change, Population pressure, diffusion of innovation, socio-religious barriers in accepting the innovation and new ideas. Media and Cultural Change, Dynamics of change in Pakistan: Trends and Prospects
V. Ethnicity and race
Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity: Origin of race and theories; Ethnic Groups, Nations and Nationality; Ethnic Conflict; Degree of Social Variation; Rank Societies; caste and Class Societies; Racism and Inequality, Ethnicity and Inequality, and Social Stratification etc.
VI. Anthropological Theories
- Contributors: (Edward Burnett Taylor, Lewis Henry Morgan, James Frazer, Kari Marx, Edmund Leach, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Alfred Kroeber, AR Radcliffe-Brown, Malinowski, Clifford Geertz, Talal Asad, Akbar S Ahmed, ibne-Khaldoon, Shah Waliullah)
- Classical Theories (Degenerations, Evolutionism, Diffusions,
- Modern Theories Functionalism, Structural-functionalism, Class struggle, Structuralism, Historical Particularism, Feminism, Culture and personality)
- Current Trends in Anthropological Thoughts: (Postmodernism, Romanticism, Poetics and Political of Ethnography)
VII. Anthropological Research Methods
- Meaning, definition, types and aims of social research
- Qualitative and Quantitative research
- Purpose of research, Research Question, Variables, Hypothesis, Research Objective, Research design, Sampling, field Data Collection, Tools of Data Collection (Questionnaire, Interview, Participant Observation), Data Classification, Data Analysis, and Report Writing.