Agriculture and Forestry CSS Syllabus

Agriculture and Forestry (100 Marks)

Part-I: Agriculture (50 marks)

I. Concept of Integrated Agriculture: Components of natural resources as bases for agriculture production (Land, Water, biological, Environmental, Solar, Energy)
II. Challenges in Pakistan’s Agriculture: Present scenario and future prospects. Analytical overview: issues and strategies for improvement of crop management, livestock management, fisheries, cottage industry, resource management and rural development. Institutions and policies: issues and options.
III. Elements of Climate and their Relationship with Crop Growth: Farming Systems, biological nitrogen fixation, soil profile, structure and texture, soil fertility, soil erosion and conservation, water logging and salinity
IV. Genetic Improvement for Crop Production: GMO crops, Seed production technology.
V. Horticulture: Floriculture, landscaping, pests and diseases of agriculture crops and their control, integrated pest management.
VI. Rainfed and Irrigated Agriculture: Agriculture mechanization, land tenure and land reforms, role of agriculture in national economy.

Part-II Forestry (50 Marks)

I. Forest, range lands and wild life importance and significance
II. Forest management and utilization, wood based industries in Pakistan, silviculture
III. Range management and utilization
IV. National and international forest wealth statistics
V. Role of wildlife as value addition to forestry
VI. Forest based wildlife reservations of Pakistan and their management, eco-tourism
VII. Forestry, agroforestry, social forestry and forest biometrics
VIII. Socio-economic and ecological impact of manmade forests
IX. Watershed Management and role of forests in prevailing climate change dilemma
X. National forest laws and policies at national level, biodiversity & environment


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