Journalism CSS Syllabus

PAPER: JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION (100 MARKS)
. I. Introduction to Mass Communication
 Concept – Definitions, Need/Importance/Purposes, Types of Communication,
Process of Communication, Basic Models.  Functions of a model, Evaluation of a model  Basic models in Mass Communication: – o Lasswell’s Model (1948)
o Shannon-Weaver model (1948)
o Osgood,s model (1954)
o Schramm’s model (1954)
o Newcmb’s symmetry theory (1953)
o Westley-McLean’s model (1976)
o Gerbner model (1956)
II. Mass Communication Theories
 Normative theories of the press: Schramm’s four theories and criticism on these
theories
 Media as agents of power  The Spiral of silence
 Media Usage and gratifications
 Media hegemony
 Diffusion of innovations
 Powerful effects model: hypodermic needle, silver bullet  Moderate effects model: two-step and multi-step flow of communication.  Powerful media revisited: Marshal McLuhan’s media determinism
III. Global / International Communication
 The Historical Context of International Communication
 Globalization, technology, and the mass media
 Communication and Cultural imperialism
 Communication Flow in Global Media: Imbalance in the flow of information
between North and South
 McBride commission and its recommendations.  International Communication in the Internet Age: the new social media and its
effects on developing world

IV. Media and Society
 Mass media and social change
 Media as a social system: The balance between interrelation and
interdependence
 Media freedom and its role for democracy,  The functional approach to mass media: four social functions of the media
 Media as an awareness agent  Mass media and social representation
V. Mass Media in Pakistan:  Media system in Pakistan: historical, chronological, and analytical review
 The system of journalism and the media system
 Employer-employee relations in Pakistani media
 Government-press relations
 Press in Pakistan: The newspaper industry, from mission to the market  Electronic media: from total dependence to enormous power  The new 24/7 television: uses and abuses
 The new radio: potential for change and the present performance.  The question of freedom and responsibility
VI. Development Support Communication
 Theories of development support communication with specific focus on the developing world
 The dominant paradigm of development: historical, analytical perspective
 The Alternative paradigm of development  Small is beautiful: community development as a snowball effect.  Globalization vs Localization
 Glocalization
 Social Marketing: how to infuse new ideas into a developing population
VII. Public Relations:  Concept of Public Relations
 Historical development of public relations: from press agentry to PR
 Public relation in Pakistan
 Ministry of information
 Press Information Department (PID)  Public relations and publicity
 PR as a tool for governance
 Private PR agencies and their structure

 Basic methods of PR: press release, press note, press conference
 PR Ethics
VIII. Media Laws and Ethics:  History of Media Laws in Pakistan
 Development of media regulations from the British colonial era to independent Pakistan
 Libel, Defamation and relevant portions of PPC
 PPO, RPPPO
 PEMRA: establishment, development, and operational mechanisms
 Press Council of Pakistan (PCP)  Citizens Media Commission: need, present status, and reasons for inactivity
 Press Code of Ethics
 Inability of the media to develop a code of ethics as an institution
 The media’s quest for freedom and its inability to self regulate.

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