Philosophy CSS Paper I 2013
FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR
RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2013
TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
(PART-I MCQs) 30 MINUTES MAXIMUM MARKS: 20
(PART-II) 2 HOURS & 30 MINUTES MAXIMUM MARKS: 80
NOTE: (i) First attempt PART-I (MCQs) on separate OMR Answer Sheet which shall be taken back after 30 minutes.
(ii) Overwriting/cutting of the options/answers will not be given credit.
PART-I ((MCQs) (COMPULSORY)
Q.1. (i) Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate Circle on the OMR Answer Sheet. (20×1=20)
(ii) Answers given anywhere, other than OMR Answer Sheet, shall not be considered.
1. Which of the following is the best definition of validity?
(a) An argument is valid if its premises are true (b) An argument is valid if its conclusion is true
(c) An argument is valid if its premises are true and its conclusion is true
(d) An argument is true if and only if the truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion
(e) None of these
2. Which of the following preposition is a tautology?
(a) (p v q) q (b) pv (q p) (c) p v (p q) (d) p (p q) (e) None of these
3. Which of the following is true of subcontrary claims?
(a) They can both be false but they cannot both be true
(b) They can both be true and false (c) They can always have opposite truth values
(d) They can both be true but they cannot both be false (e) None of these
4. Which of the following conclusions can logically be influenced from the following premises? No shoes
but joggers are sold in this store. The shoes sold here can be expensive.
(a) Only expensive shoes are sold in this store (b) All expensive shoes are joggers (c) All joggers are sold in this store (d) Some joggers are expensive (e) None of these
5. An argument comprises of:
(a) At least a premise (b) At least a conclusion (c) At least two premises and a conclusion (d) At least one premise and one conclusion (e) None of these
6. A deductive argument whose true premises do not necessarily prove its conclusion is considered to be:
(a) Weak (b) Lead (c) Invalid (d) None of these
7. Which fallacy is involved in the argument “Either join a political party or resign yourself to a lonely life”.
(a) False Dilemma (b) Begging the question (c) Genetic fallacy (d) Ad hominem (e) None of these
8. Which of the following claims are called negative?
(a) I and E (b) E and O (c) O and A (d) A and I (e) None of these
9. What does the symbol V stands for?
(a) Conjunction (b) Disjunction (c) Implication (d) Equivalence (e) None of these
10. Which Muslim logicians held Greek logic responsible for heretical metaphysical conclusions?
(a) Al-Ghazali (b) Al-Farabi (c) Ibn Sina (d) Ibn Taimya (e) None of these
11. Al-Ghazali is the author of:
(a) Tahafat al-Falasafah (b) Radd al-Mantaqeen (c) Tahaft Al-Tahafat (d) None of these
12. In logic of what kind do we argue from the whole to the part?
(a) Induction (b) Deduction (c) Formal (d) None of these
13. Symbolic logic was introduced by:
(a) Aristotle (b) Francis Bacon (c) Geoge Boole (d) None of these
14. Give the conclusion from the following:
Some doctors are fools.
Some fools are sick.
(a) Some doctors are sick (b) Some sick are doctors (c) Both (a) and (b) follows
(d) Neither (a) nor (b) follows
15. What conclusion follows from the statements:
All fish are tortoise. No tortoise is a crocodile.
(a) No crocodile is a fish (b) No fish is a crocodile (c) Both (a) and (b) follows
(d) Neither of these follow
16. Identify the status of the conclusion in the following argument?
Tanya is older than Eric
Cliff is older than Tanya
Eric is older than Cliff
(a) True (b) False (c) Uncertain (d) None of these
17. In symbolic logic the symbol stands for:
(a) Implications (b) Equivalence (c) Negation (d) None of these
18. What is the name of the coupling device that binds the subject and predicate of a preposition in traditional logic?
(a) Copula (b) Conjunction (c) Relation (d) None of these
19. A syllogism can be tested through diagram technique.
(a) Bool (b) Venn (c) Traditional (d) None of these
20. argument has probable conclusion.
(a) Deductive (b) Inductive (c) Fallacious (d) None of these
NOTE: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(iii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iv) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.
Q.No.2. Distinguish between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Why induction is considered crucial for scientific inquiry? (20)
Q.No.3. How emotive use of language impedes clear thinking? Illustrate with examples. (20)
Q.No.4. What are logical fallacies? Distinguish between formal and material fallacies. (20)
Q.No.5. Briefly explain the rules of replacement. (20)
Q.No.6. How does probability relate to inductive logic? Are they identical? Discuss and substantiate your views. (20)
Q.No.7. Muslim logicians both criticized and developed Aristotellian logic. Briefly discuss
with reference to Al-Farabi, Ibe-Sina and Al-Ghazali. (20)
Q.No.8. Write notes on any TWO of the following: (10 each) (20)
(a) Relativity of definitions (b) Value of special symbols (c) Scientific explanations